Some patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome appear to have hypergastrinaemia and hyperplasia of the antral G cells but no tumour. This subgroup has been classified as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome type 1. We have treated such a patient by vagotomy and antrectomy, the fasting plasma gastrin and acid secretion subsequently returning to normal.
A 17-year-old male had a four-year history of duodenal ulcer. Gastric secretion tests showed acid hypersecretion. Fasting plasma gastrin was 8350 pg/ml (normal 50-170 pg/ml). At laparotomy duodenal ulceration was confirmed but no pancreatic or other tumours were found. Truncal vagotomy and antrectomy was performed with distal pancreatectomy. Immunofluorescent staining showed hyperplasia of G cells in the resected antrum but a normal pancreas and duodenum.
Six months after operation he was symptom free and acid secretion was reduced by 92%. The fasting plasma gastrin at two months was <50 pg/ml.
These findings suggest that type 1 Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may be a clinical entity.
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