Effect of intestinal surgery on the risk of urinary stone formation.
The prevalence of urinary stone disease in 426 patients who had undergone bowel surgery at the General Infirmary at Leeds from 1958 to 1978 was found by postal questionnaire to be 9.4%. The risk of urinary stone formation was determined from the composition of 24 hour urines from 61 unselected patients, in whom intestinal resections had been performed. There were 27 patients with an ileostomy, 17 patients with an ileostomy and a small bowel resection, and 17 patients with a small bowel resection, or bypass, and an intact colon. Of this group of 61 patients, 9.8% gave a history of urinary stones after surgery. Compared with normal control subjects ileostomy patients had significantly lower urinary pH and volume, higher concentrations of calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, and increased risk of forming uric acid and calcium stones: a small bowel resection combined with an ileostomy increased the ileostomy output, lowered the urinary volume further, and reduced urinary calcium excretion. The concentration of urinary oxalate increased and the risk of both uric acid and calcium stones was high. Patients with small bowel resection and intact colon had hyperoxaluria and an increased risk of calcium stones despite a low urinary calcium. There was no increased risk of uric acid stones in this sub-group. It is concluded that the risk of forming urinary stones after this type of surgery is considerable. The follow-up of patients with ileostomies and with small bowel resections should include an assessment of faecal losses and urinary composition to identify the patients who have a high risk of forming urinary stones.