A prospective search for gastro-oesophageal candidiasis was made by histological examination of all the biopsies taken from 465 patients endoscoped consecutively during a 12 month period. The criterion for diagnosis was the demonstration of infiltration of tissue or ulcer slough by yeasts and hyphae. Nineteen cases of candidiasis were found giving an overall incidence of 4%. There were 12 cases with oesophageal candidiasis, two with both oesophageal and gastric candidiasis, and five with gastric candidiasis. In none of the patients was candidiasis suspected before endoscopy. Symptoms referable to the candidiasis were uncommon and radiology was not helpful in diagnosis. There was associated local pathology (particularly peptic ulceration and carcinoma of the stomach or oesophagus) in all except two patients, which suggests that the candidiasis is usually secondary to mucosal damage. In the series, candidiasis was present in 27% of patients with oesophageal cancer, 20% of patients with gastric cancer, 16% of patients with benign gastric ulcers, and 15% of patients with oesophagitis.
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