Gastric mucosal concentrations of histamine and of its metabolic enzyme, histamine methyltransferase activity, were measured in patients with duodenal ulcer disease and patients with an apparently normal stomach and duodenum. Patients with duodenal ulcer had significantly less (p less than 0.05) mucosal histamine (median 204 nmol/g) than control subjects (median 252 nmol/g). There was no significant difference between the two groups in their histamine methyltransferase activity values. Omeprazole therapy did not significantly change mucosal histamine (+23%), histamine methyltransferase activity (+5%), histamine release before (+5%) or during (+7%) pentagastrin infusion. It significantly decreased acid secretion during pentagastrin stimulation (median -73%, p less than 0.001). Omeprazole, like cimetidine, does not stop histamine release during pentagastrin stimulation.