This study evaluates 216 patients with schistosomal colonic disease, diagnosed by endoscopic biopsies at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh. The colonoscopic appearance was suggestive of schistosomiasis in 98 of these patients (45.37%), Schistosoma mansoni ova in stool was detected in only 24 of these 216 patients (11.11%). The most common histopathological finding in colonic biopsies of these patients was Schistosoma mansoni ova in the colonic mucosa with no or mild inflammatory cells infiltrates. These findings correlate with the endoscopic appearances in most patients. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain or distention in 84 patients (38.88%). Sixty five patients (30.09%) had hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Eight patients had schistosomal polyps and two patients had colonic malignancy in which no association between their malignancy and Schistosoma mansoni infection was established. After antischistosomal treatment follow up, sigmoidoscopy was normal in 28 patients who previously had abnormal endoscopic appearances. Colonoscopic examination is valuable in colonic schistosomiasis as it can show characteristic colonic lesions and colonic biopsies are diagnostic and correlates with histological findings.
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