Satiation, the process that brings eating to an end, and satiety, the state of inhibition over further eating, may be influenced by cholecystokinin (CCK). In animal and human studies, it has been shown that infusion of exogenous CCK decreases food intake, but the doses given may well have led to supraphysiological plasma concentrations. This study was done to discover if a low dose of intraduodenal fat releasing physiological amounts of endogenous cholecystokinin exerts satiation or satiety effects, or both and if these effects could be inhibited by the CCK receptor antagonist loxiglumide. In 10 healthy lean volunteers (5 F, 5 M, mean age 26) three tests were performed in a randomised blind fashion. Intralipid 20% (6 g/h) (experiments A and C) or saline (experiment B) were given intraduodenally from 1030 until 1300. The subjects received saline (experiments A and B) or loxiglumide (experiment C) a specific CCK-receptor antagonist (10 mg/kg/h) intravenously from 0930 until 1300. At 1200 a meal was served. At regular time intervals hunger feelings were measured using visual analogue scales and food selection lists and plasma CCK was measured by radioimmunoassay. Food intake (mean (SEM)) during intraduodenal fat (206(35)g) was lower than in the control study (269(37)g, p = 0.09). Loxiglumide largely prevented the inhibitory effect of intraduodenal fat on food intake (245(30)g). From 1030 until the meal at 1200 there was a significant satiating effect of intraduodenal fat compared with the control and loxiglumide experiments according to the food selection lists, which was because of the satiating effect for the fat rich items (p<0.05). Also feelings of fullness were significantly higher during intraduodenal fat than in the control or loxiglumide experiments (p<0.05). During intraduodenal fat there was a significant increase of plasma CCK from 2.4(0.3) to 4.8(0.4) pM (p<0.001). Loxiglumide led to an exaggerated CCK release to a peak concentration of 16(2.4) pM before the meal. This study shows that in humans low dose intraduodenal fat increases satiety and satiation, mainly through the effect of CCK.
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