Coeliac disease and unfavourable outcome of pregnancy
- P Martinellib,
- R Tronconea,
- F Paparoa,
- P Torrea,
- E Trapanesea,
- C Fasanoa,
- A Lambertib,
- G Budillonc,
- G Nardonec,
- L Grecoa
- aDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy, bDepartment of Obsetrics and Gynaecology, cDepartment of Gastroenterology
- Dr L Greco, Department of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
- Accepted 22 October 1999
BACKGROUND Up to 50% of women with untreated coeliac disease experience miscarriage or an unfavourable outcome of pregnancy. In most cases, after 6–12 months of a gluten free diet, no excess of unfavourable outcome of pregnancy is observed. The prevalence of undiagnosed coeliac disease among pregnant women is not known.
AIM To determine the prevalence of untreated coeliac disease among women attending the obstetrics-gynaecological department.
METHODS Endomysial antibodies, which are specific and sensitive for coeliac disease, were evaluated in all women attending the obstetrics-gynaecology department of a large city hospital over a 90 day period.
RESULTS Of 845 pregnant women screened, 12 were identified as having coeliac disease. Three had previously been diagnosed but were not following a gluten free diet. The remaining nine underwent a small intestinal biopsy, which confirmed the diagnosis. The outcome of pregnancy was unfavourable in seven of these 12 women. Six healthy babies were born with no problems after the women had been on a gluten free diet for one year.
CONCLUSIONS Overall, 1 in 70 women was affected by coeliac disease, either not diagnosed (nine cases) or not treated (three cases). Their history of miscarriages, anaemia, low birth weight babies, and unfavourable outcome of pregnancy suggests that testing for coeliac disease should be included in the battery of tests prescribed for pregnant women. Coeliac disease is considerably more common than most of the diseases for which pregnant women are routinely screened. Unfavourable events associated with coeliac disease may be prevented by a gluten free diet.