Gut 51:132-139 doi:10.1136/gut.51.1.132
  • Review

Cocarcinogenic effects of alcohol in hepatocarcinogenesis

  1. F Stickel1,
  2. D Schuppan1,
  3. E G Hahn1,
  4. H K Seitz2
  1. 1Department of Medicine I, Division of Hepatology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
  2. 2Laboratory of Alcohol Research, Liver Disease and Nutrition, and Department of Medicine, Salem Medical Centre, Heidelberg, Germany
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr F Stickel, Department of Medicine I, Division of Hepatology, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstraβe 12, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany; felix.
  • Accepted 21 August 2001


Alcohol is a major aetiological factor in hepatocarcinogenesis but our understanding of its importance as a modulating factor is just beginning to emerge. In the present review, a number of possible cofactors and mechanisms are discussed by which alcohol may enhance the development of hepatoma. These include dietary or environmental carcinogens ingested along with alcoholic beverages, alcoholic cirrhosis as a precancerous condition, and the effects of alcohol metabolism.