Depletion of intestinal resident macrophages prevents ischaemia reperfusion injury in gut
- 1Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, China
- 2Department of Cell Biology, Division of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Free University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
- Correspondence to:
Dr P K H Tam
Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China;
- Accepted 6 May 2004
- Revised 2 May 2004
Background and aims: The cellular and molecular events involved in ischaemia reperfusion (IR) injury are complex and not fully understood. Previous studies have implicated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) as major inflammatory cells in IR injury. However, anti-PMN antiserum treatment offers only limited protection, indicating that other inflammatory cells are involved. We have therefore investigated the contribution of resident macrophages in IR injury using an IR gut injury model.
Methods: DA rats were divided into sham operation and IR groups. The superior mesenteric artery was clamped for 30, 45, or 60 minutes (ischaemia) followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. IR injuries were evaluated by histological staining. Expression of early growth response factor 1 (Egr-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and proinflammatory cytokines was analysed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting analysis. The specific role of macrophages in IR gut injury was also evaluated in resident macrophage depleted rats.
Results: Mucosal sloughing and villi destruction were seen in 45/60 minute and 60/60 minute IR guts. PMN infiltration at the damaged mucosal area was undetectable in 45/60 minute and 60/60 minute IR guts. PMN were localised around the capillaries at the base of the crypts in 60/60 minute IR gut. Obvious PMN infiltration was only observed in damaged villi after three hours of reperfusion. Elevated nuclear Egr-1 immunostaining was localised in resident macrophages at the damaged villi before histological appearance of mucosal damage. Furthermore, resident macrophages at the damaged site expressed MPO. Protein levels of the proinflammatory cytokines RANTES and MCP-1 were increased in IR gut. Depletion of resident macrophages by dichloromethylene bisphosphonate significantly reduced mucosal damage in rat guts after IR.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that resident macrophages play a role in early mucosal damage in IR gut injury. Therefore, macrophages should be treated as a prime target for therapeutic intervention for IR damage.
- IR, ischaemia reperfusion
- PMN, polymorphonuclear neutrophils
- Egr-1, early growth response factor 1
- MPO, myeloperoxidase, RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
- ROS, reactive oxygen species
- ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1
- MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1
- SMA, superior mesenteric artery
- Cl2MBP, dichloromethylene bisphosphonate
- PBS, phosphate buffered saline
- iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase
- LFA-1, lymphocyte function associated antigen 1