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Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
  1. M Peracchi1,
  2. M T Bardella1,
  3. F Caprioli1,
  4. S Massironi1,
  5. D Conte1,
  6. L Valenti2,
  7. C Ronchi3,
  8. P Beck-Peccoz3,
  9. M Arosio4,
  10. L Piodi5
  1. 1Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Milan, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Fondazione IRCCS, Milan, Italy
  2. 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Milan, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Fondazione IRCCS, Milan, Italy
  3. 3Institute of Endocrine Sciences, University of Milan, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Fondazione IRCCS, Milan, Italy
  4. 4Department of Endocrinology, University of Milan, Ospedale S Giuseppe-Fatebenefratelli A.FaR, Milan, Italy
  5. 5Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Milan, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Fondazione IRCCS, Milan, Italy
  1. Correspondence to:
    Professor M Peracchi
    Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Milan, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Fondazione IRCCS, Via Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy; maddalena.peracchi{at}unimi.it

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Ghrelin, the gut-brain peptide recently identified as the natural endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptors, exerts various endocrine and non-endocrine effects, including control of food intake and energy homeostasis.1 It could also play a role in modulating immune responses and inflammatory processes.1 Indeed, ghrelin exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo,1–5 and high circulating ghrelin levels have been found in rats with septic shock, cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers, and adjuvant induced arthritis.4–6 Also, we have recently demonstrated that in patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease, circulating ghrelin levels are abnormally high, correlate positively with intestinal mucosal lesion severity, and normalise in successfully gluten free diet treated patients.7 However, normal or even decreased ghrelin levels have been found in other inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and Helicobacter pylori associated …

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