Article Text

Gastrointestinal endoscopy: past and future
  1. M V Sivak
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr M V Sivak Jr
    Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA; mvs4{at}


The former editor of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy reflects on the history of endoscopy, which reveals much about the mechanisms whereby innovation occurred, and attempts to forecast the future. Endoscopic technological development in most industrialised countries will be determined largely by various combinations of many external factors together with the further development of virtual imaging

  • CCD, charge coupled device
  • EUS, endoscopic ultrasonography
  • NIH, National Institutes of Health
  • endoscopy
  • endoscopic ultrasonography
  • endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Statistics from


  • Conflict of interest: None declared.

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.