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In a review on Recent Advances in Clinical Practice for Budd–Chiari syndrome (BCS) (Gut 2008;57:1469–78), one of us emphasised that multiple thrombotic risk factors are usually present in patients with BCS. Below, we report recent results from our group which further support this paradigm and extend it to the context of pregnancy.
An influence of female sex hormones on the risk of BCS has long been recognised on the basis of an increased risk of BCS among oral contraceptive users.1 2 However, the role of pregnancy in causing BCS remains unclear: although 6–47% of reported BCS cases encountered in women presented in pregnancy or postpartum (hereafter referred to as time-related to pregnancy), other risk factors for thrombosis were not investigated.3–6
Among 96 patients with primary BCS diagnosed in our centre between January 1995 and December 2005, there were …
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