Introduction Dual anti-platelet therapy (DAT) with aspirin and clopidogrel is prescribed up to 1 year following Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) are often used in selective patients to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Some studies have suggested that there is a possible interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel resulting in an adverse cardiac event rate. Main objective of this study was to determine if prescription of PPIs in ACS patients on dual anti-platelet therapy results in increased cardiac events compared to patients not receiving PPIs.
Methods A retrospective observational, comparative study of 200 admissions with ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (nSTEMIs) over a period of 1 year. Patients were divided in two groups: PPI group (Patients on DAT and PPIs) and Non-PPI group (Patients on DAT only). End points were readmissions with ACS or death.
Results Mean age was 67 (24–96), 65% male and 35% female, 75% Caucasian and 25% Asians. 27 patients were excluded (24 patients not receiving DAT, 3 patients on H2 antagonist). For PPI group (54% on lansoprazole, 35% on pantoprazole and 11% on omeprazole), baseline characteristics were (Patient number—89, 27-STEMIs, 62-nSTEMIs; mean age—69) whereas the corresponding values for non-PPI group were (Patient number—84, 38-STEMIs, 46-nSTEMIs, mean age—63). Mean GRACE score at admission (predictor of death or MI in 6 months) was 29% for PPI group whereas the corresponding value for the non-PPI group was 27% (p=0.075). 26 patients were re-admitted with ACS, 20 in PPI group and six in non-PPI group (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.43 to 9.92, z statistic 2.68, p=0.007). Five deaths due to ACS were observed, four in PPI group and one in non-PPI group (RR 3.77, 95% CI 0.43 to 33.09, p=0.23).
Conclusion This study suggests that there is an association between PPIs and clopidogrel resulting in increased readmission with acute coronary syndromes but not in increased mortality. Larger scale studies are required to confirm or refute these observations.
Competing interests None declared.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.