Vegetables, fruit and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis: a population-based prospective cohort study
- 1Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
- 2Unit of Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
- Correspondence to Mr Viktor Oskarsson, Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden;
Contributors Concept and design: all authors; acquisition of data: AW; statistical analysis: VO, NO; analysis and interpretation of data: all authors; drafting the manuscript: VO; critical revision: all authors; obtained funding: AW; study supervision: AW.
- Revised 6 April 2012
- Accepted 4 May 2012
- Published Online First 27 June 2012
Objective To examine the association of vegetable and fruit consumption with the risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.
Design A population-based prospective cohort of 80 019 women and men, aged 46–84 years, completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and was followed up for incidence of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2009. Participants were categorised into quintiles according to consumption of vegetables and consumption of fruit. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate RRs and 95% CIs.
Results In total, 320 incident cases (216 men and 104 women) with non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified during 12 years of follow-up (891 136 person-years). After adjustment for potential confounders, the authors observed a significant inverse linear dose–response association between vegetable consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis; every two additional servings per day were associated with 17% risk reduction (RR=0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98; p=0.03). Among participants consuming >1 drink of alcohol per day and among those with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, the RR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of vegetable consumption was 0.29 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.67) and 0.49 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.85), respectively. Fruit consumption was not significantly associated with the risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis; the RR comparing extreme quintiles of consumption was 1.20 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.78).
Conclusions Vegetable consumption, but not fruit consumption, may play a role in the prevention of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.
Funding This work was supported by research grants from the Swedish Research Council/Committee for Infrastructure, the Swedish Cancer Foundation and the Board of Research at Karolinska Institutet (Distinguished Professor Award) (AW). Further support was received from the Board of Postgraduate Education at Karolinska Institutet (Clinical Scientist Training Program) (VO) and Olle Engkvist Byggmästare Foundation (OSA). The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; had no role in the collection, management, analysis or interpretation of the data; and had no role in the preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained written information and return of the completed questionnaire were considered to imply informed consent.
Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by The Regional Ethical Board at Karolinska Institutet.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.