Gut 63:1014-1023 doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305418
  • Recent advances in clinical practice

Management of gastrointestinal and liver diseases during pregnancy

  1. Silvio Danese2
  1. 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  2. 2Division of Gastroenterology, IBD Center, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr C Janneke van der Woude, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, The Netherlands; c.vanderwoude{at}
  • Received 18 September 2013
  • Revised 30 November 2013
  • Accepted 14 December 2013
  • Published Online First 15 January 2014


In the majority of patients with chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases, maintenance therapy is required during pregnancy to control the disease, and disease follow-up or disease control might necessitate endoscopy. Evidence on the safety of drugs and imaging techniques during pregnancy is scarce and sometimes difficult to interpret. In this review we summarise existing literature with the aim of optimising counselling of patients with common chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases who want to conceive.