Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition which comprises of Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Significant abnormalities in body composition including muscle mass depletion have been found in IBD patients despite a healthy Body mass index (BMI) (Valentini et al, 2008). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of IBD, both CD, and UC on the body composition of adults and adolescents.
Method A pilot prospective study was conducted over 6 weeks. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IBD were recruited through convenience sampling in the adolescent and adult outpatient clinic.
Information was collected via questionnaire on patient demographics and nutritional status including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC), pinch strength, grip strength and body fat composition using the Bioelectrical impedence analysis (BIA) and tricep Skinfold thickness (TSF).
Results 27 participants were recruited (15 adults and 12 adolescents) average age 32 (range 14–55), 14 were female only one was a smoker. In adults with CD and UC there was no statistical difference respectively in BMI score (24.8 versus 26.2) WC, MUAC, pinch strength, grip strength, BIA and TSF. There was a statistically significant difference between adults and adolescents with CD respectively for BMI (24.8 versus 19.7), WC (87.4 versus 72.6), MUAC (29.6 versus 24.4), pinch (8.3 versus 3.5) and grip strength (29.4 versus 13.7) but no statistical difference for TSF (33.4 versus 33.2) and BIA (24.8 versus 22.3).
There was no statistically significant difference in BMI (19.7 versus 25.9), WC (72.6 versus 75.2), TSF (33.2 versus 31.5) or BIA (25.0 versus 25.6). There was a statistical significant difference in MUAC (24.4 versus 32.4), pinch (3.5 versus 5.2) and grip strength (13.7 versus 25.7) but no statistical difference for TSF (33.4 versus 33.2) and BIA (24.8 versus 22.3).
Conclusion When comparing CD and UC in adolescents, UC had less adverse outcomes on body composition and muscle function. CD adversely affects the body composition and muscle function of adolescents more than adults. Understanding how each form of IBD affects people of various ages is critical in the management of IBD. Improvements are required to complete more thorough nutritional assessments and further dietetic input is required to manage those at highest nutritional risk including adolescent CD patients.
. Hill, R (2014). Update on nutritional status, body composition and growth in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease.
. Bryant R, Trott M, Bartholemeusz F, et al.Systematic review: body composition in adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharamcol Ther. 2013; 38:213–225.
Disclosure of Interest None Declared
- body composition
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- nutritional status