Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that regulates intestinal inflammation. PPARγ is highly expressed in the colon and can be activated by various dietary ligands. A number of fatty acids such as PUFAs or eicosanoids are considered as endogenous PPARγ activators. Nevertheless, other nutrients such as glutamine, spicy food or flavonoids are also able to activate PPARγ. As PPARγ plays a key role in bacterial induced inflammation, anti-inflammatory properties of probiotics may be mediated through PPARγ. The aims of the present review are to discuss of the potential roles of dietary compounds to modulate intestinal inflammation through PPARγ.