Despite advances in understanding the roles of adiposity, food intake, GI and adipocyte-related hormones, inflammatory mediators, the gut–brain axis and the hypothalamic nervous system in the pathophysiology of obesity, the effects of different therapeutic interventions on those pathophysiological mechanisms are controversial. There are still no low-cost, safe, effective treatments for obesity and its complications. Currently, bariatric surgical approaches targeting the GI tract are more effective than non-surgical approaches in inducing weight reduction and resolving obesity-related comorbidities. However, current guidelines emphasise non-surgical approaches through lifestyle modification and medications to achieve slow weight loss, which is not usually sustained and may be associated with medication-related side effects. This review analyses current central, peripheral or hormonal targets to treat obesity and addresses challenges and opportunities to develop novel approaches for obesity.
- BRAIN/GUT INTERACTION
- GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES