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Immunochemical faecal occult blood testing to screen for colorectal cancer: can the screening interval be extended?
  1. Ulrike Haug1,2,
  2. Esmée J Grobbee3,
  3. Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar4,
  4. Manon C W Spaander3,
  5. Ernst J Kuipers3
  1. 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany
  2. 2Faculty of Human and Health Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  3. 3Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  4. 4Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ulrike Haug, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Achterstr. 30, Bremen 28359, Germany; haug{at}bips.uni-bremen.de

Abstract

Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on faecal immunochemical testing for haemoglobin (FIT) typically use a screening interval of 2 years. We aimed to estimate how alternative FIT strategies that use a lower than usual positivity threshold followed by a longer screening interval compare with conventional strategies.

Methods We analysed longitudinal data of 4523 Dutch individuals (50–74 years at baseline) participating in round I of a one-sample FIT screening programme, of which 3427 individuals also participated in round II after 1–3 years. The cohort was followed until 2 years after round II. In both rounds, a cut-off level of ≥50 ng haemoglobin (Hb)/mL buffer (corresponding to 10 µg Hb/g faeces) was used, representing the standard scenario. We determined the cumulative positivity rate (PR) and the numbers of subjects diagnosed with advanced adenomas (N_AdvAd) and early stage CRC (N_earlyCRC) in the cohort over two rounds of screening (standard scenario) and compared it with hypothetical single-round screening with use of a lower cut-off and omission of the second round (alternative scenario).

Results In the standard scenario, the cumulative (ie, round I and II combined) PR, N_AdvAd and N_earlyCRC were 13%, 180% and 26%, respectively. In alternative scenarios using a cut-off level of respectively ≥11 and ≥22 ng Hb/mL buffer (corresponding to 2 and 4 µg Hb/g faeces), the PRs were 18% and 13%, the N_AdvAd were 180 and 162 and the N_earlyCRC ranged between 22–27 and 22–26.

Conclusions The diagnostic yield of FIT screening using a lowered positivity threshold in combination with an extended screening interval (up to 5 years) may be similar to conventional FIT strategies. This justifies and motivates further research steps in this direction.

  • COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING

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