Table 2

Soluble VAP-1 levels according to clinical covariates

Categorical associationssVAP-1 level (ng/mL)p Value
 Male vs female529 (432–627)567 (457–698)0.325
Disease severity
 Non-cirrhotic vs Cirrhotic462 (406–547)578 (413–736)0.006
Ascending cholangitis within past 3 months*
 Presence vs absence550 (376–646)532 (438–672)0.350
 Presence vs absence532 (431–653)542 (438–663)0.668
 Active vs inactive523 (387–626)533 (443–672)0.466
 Colectomy vs colon intact534 (443–710)532 (434–651)0.939
Immunosuppression within past 3 months
 Exposure vs absence516 (418–621)549 (438–663)0.630
UDCA exposure within past 3 months
 Treatment vs non-treatment534 (451–681)457 (413–571)0.053
Antibiotic exposure within past 3 months‡
 Exposure vs absence566 (395–621)529 (436–672)0.600
 Positive vs negative517 (432–696)551 (435–631)0.857
 Positive vs negative508 (421–627)543 (436–676)0.462
 Positive vs negative517 (436–667)552 (436–663)0.794
Child-Turcotte-Pugh score
 A vs B vs C512 (406–598)559 (453–750)524 (430–699)0.347
Continuous variable correlationsSpearman's ρp Value
Patient age0.1940.027
Serum AST−0.0020.993
Serum ALT−0.0760.691
Serum ALP (ratio to ULN)−0.2050.278
Serum bilirubin0.2170.250
Serum albumin−0.8190.318
Platelet count−0.5850.001
Serum sodium0.1410.113
Serum creatinine−0.2420.197
MELD score0.1280.149
  • Continuous data presented as medians (IQR in parenthesis).

  • *A total of 25 patients were noted to have an attack of ascending cholangitis within 3 months of serum sampling.

  • †A total of106 patients had a history of IBD (all colitis), of whom 27 had active disease. Another 19 patients had undergone prior colectomy (9 with colonic dysplasia), of which 5 were experiencing pouchitis.

  • ‡Thirty-six patients were exposed to antibiotics within 3 months of serum sampling.

  • ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine transaminase; ANA, antinuclear antibody; ASMA, anti-smooth muscle antibody; AST, aspartate transaminase; IgG, immunoglobulin G; INR, international normalised ratio; MELD, model for end-stage liver diseases; pANCA, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; UDCA, ursodeoxycholic acid; ULN, upper limit of normal; VAP, vascular adhesion protein.