Table 2

Age, gender, iron and inflammation variables, faecal calprotectin and faecal pH, by group. Differences in these variables among Kenyan infants (n=155) at baseline and after 4 months of consuming daily a micronutrient powder containing either no iron (control), 5 mg of iron (Fe), or 5 mg of iron and 7.5 g GOS (FeGOS)

ControlFeFeGOS
Age (month)
 Baseline7.5 (6.9, 9.1)*7.5 (6.9, 9.3)7.3 (6.9, 9.2)
 4 months11.3 (10.5, 13.0)11.2 (10.6, 13.1)11.1 (10.6, 13.1)
Male/Female28/2327/2522/30
Haemoglobin (g/L)
 Baseline103 (97–110)†103 (93–108)106 (102–111)
 4 months101 (93–108)a112 (107–122)b111 (103–116)b
Anaemia, n (%)
 Baseline38 (75)41 (79)36 (69)
 4 months40 (83)a17 (35)b19 (42)b
Plasma ferritin (μg/L)
 Baseline13.6 (8.2–28.5)12.6 (8.9–26.1)16.9 (12.6–31.3)
 4 months12.4 (8.4–26.3)a22.8 (17.4–33.4)b24.2 (16.5–36.2)b
Soluble transferrin receptor (mg/L)
 Baseline10.8 (8.4–14.9)12.6 (8.7–16.1)11.6 (8.8–15.8)
 4 months12.6 (10.0–17.5)a9.6 (8.0–11.5)b8.4 (7.7–10.2)b
Iron deficiency anaemia, n (%)
 Baseline35 (69)38 (73)32 (62)
 4 months35 (73)a13 (27)b18 (40)b
C reactive protein (mg/L)
 Baseline1.2 (0.5–6.7)1.2 (0.5–3.2)1.2 (0.5–6.5)
 4 months1.2 (0.4–3.0)1.4 (0.6–3.4)1.4 (0.4–6.9)
Alpha-glycoprotein (g/L)
 Baseline0.9 (0.7–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.8)
 4 months1.1 (0.7–1.9)1.2 (0.7–1.8)1.0 (0.7–1.9)
Faecal calprotectin (µg/g)
 Baseline191.9 (107.0–304.7)202.2 (111.6–312.9)236.9 (120.6–322.0)
 3 weeks193.3 (100.0–321.8)198.8 (89.3–387.0)163.0 (77.8–294.2)
 4 months123.7 (45.2–245.1)136.1 (62.7–243.5)147.8 (77.2–308.6)
Faecal pH
 Baseline5.7 (5.2–6.2)5.5 (5.0–6.1)5.6 (5.2–6.1)
 3 weeks5.5 (5.1–5.9)a5.9 (5.4–6.5)b5.4 (4.6–6.0)a
 4 months5.6 (5.3–6.2)5.6 (5.3–6.0)5.6 (5.3–6.0)
  • For continuous variables, between-group differences at baseline were tested using one-factor analysis of variance: there were no significant baseline differences between any of the variables. Between-group differences at study endpoint were tested using analysis of covariance with baseline values as covariates. For categorical variables, between-group differences at baseline and endpoint were tested using generalised linear models. Across rows, different letter superscripts indicate significant differences; p<0.05.

  • *Median (min, max), all such values.

  • †Median (IQR), all such values.

  • GOS, galacto-oligosaccharides.