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Recommendations for standards of sedation and patient monitoring during gastrointestinal endoscopy.
  1. G D Bell,
  2. R F McCloy,
  3. J E Charlton,
  4. D Campbell,
  5. N A Dent,
  6. M W Gear,
  7. R F Logan,
  8. C H Swan
  1. British Society of Gastroenterology, Endoscopy Committee Working Party, London.


    (1) Safety and monitoring should be part of a quality assurance programme for endoscopy units. (2) Resuscitation equipment and drugs must be available in the endoscopy and recovery areas. (3) Staff of all grades and disciplines should be familiar with resuscitation methods and undergo periodic retraining. (4) Equipment and drugs necessary for the maintenance of airway, breathing, and circulation should be present in the endoscopy unit and recovery area (if outside the unit) and checked regularly. (5) A qualified nurse, trained in endoscopic techniques and adequately trained in resuscitation techniques, should monitor the patient's condition during procedures. (6) Before endoscopy, adverse risk factors should be identified. This may be aided by the use of a check list. (7) The dosage of all drugs should be kept to the minimum necessary. There is evidence that benzodiazepine/opioid mixtures are hazardous. (8) Specific antagonists for benzodiazepines and opioids exist and should be available in the event of emergency. (9) A cannula should be placed in a vein during endoscopy on 'at risk' patients. (10) Oxygen enriched air should be given to 'at risk' patients undergoing endoscopic procedures. (11) The endoscopist should ensure the well being and clinical observation of the patient undergoing endoscopy in conjunction with another individual. This individual should be a qualified nurse trained in endoscopic techniques or another medically qualified practitioner. (12) Monitoring techniques such as pulse oximetry are recommended. (13) Clinical monitoring of the patient must be continued into the recovery area. (14) Records of management and outcome should be collected and will provide data for appropriate audit.

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