Leiomyoma of the oesophagus, although the commonest benign oesophageal tumour, is still rare compared with malignant tumours of the oesophagus. Leiomyomas of the oesophagus are usually diagnosed on barium swallow or histological examination after section. Five cases of leiomyoma of the oesophagus are reported where diagnosis was made by the combination of barium swallow, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and computed tomography and all but one patient were followed up for one to four years. The endoscopic biopsy specimens were non-specific in all five patients but none showed any evidence of malignancy. None of the five patients had a history of dysphagia. This paper describes a conservative approach to medical treatment in asymptomatic oesophageal leiomyoma rather than surgical excision as commonly published. It also emphasises the importance of negative endoscopic pinch biopsy specimens and the role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of oesophageal leiomyoma.
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