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Nitroxide radical attenuates ischaemia/reperfusion injury to the rat small intestine

Abstract

Background—Free radicals are associated with post-ischaemic intestinal injury and contribute to major clinical problems primarily in premature infants. Various antioxidative means and modes of intervention, previously tested, have demonstrated only limited efficacy.

Aims—To study the protective activity of the stable nitroxide radical 4-OH, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TPL) and its respective hydroxylamine (TPL-H) against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.

Methods—An isolated loop of ileum was created in laboratory male Sabra rats and constantly perfused with warmed normal saline. Intestinal injury was elicited through clamping of the superior mesenteric rat artery followed by reperfusion. Either TPL or TPL-H was given intravenously immediately before ischaemia or reperfusion and continuously afterwards. The rate of mucosal to lumen clearance of para-aminohippurate (PAH) was used to evaluate intestinal mucosal injury. Serum and perfusate levels of both TPL and TPL-H were measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry.

Results—The increase in intestinal permeability induced by I/R was significantly inhibited by both TPL and TPL-H. The nitroxide was effective also when given immediately before reperfusion.

Conclusion—Through a continuous exchange, TPL and TPL-H act as self-replenishing antioxidants and thus protect from intestinal injury. This demonstrates the potential of the family of nitroxide antioxidants against oxidative stress in general and I/R injury in particular.

  • intestinal mucosa
  • oxidative damage
  • free radicals
  • spin labels
  • antioxidants
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