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Peptic ulcer bleeding: accessory risk factors and interactions with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  1. J Weila,
  2. M J S Langmana,
  3. P Wainwrighta,
  4. D H Lawsone,
  5. M Rawlinsb,
  6. R F A Loganc,
  7. T P Brownc,
  8. M P Vesseyd,
  9. M Murphyd,
  10. D G Colin-Jonesf
  1. aUniversity of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, bUniversity of Newcastle, Newcastle, cUniversity of Nottingham, Nottingham, dUniversity of Oxford, Oxford, eRoyal Infirmary Glasgow, Glasgow, fQueen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth
  1. Professor M J S Langman, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK


AIMS To determine risk factors for peptic ulcer bleeding other than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Methods—Data on possible antecedent risk factors obtained in a large case control study of 1121 patients admitted to hospitals in Glasgow, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, and Portsmouth with bleeding peptic ulcers were compared with the same information obtained in 989 population controls. Data were analysed by logistic regression with the calculation of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS From a logistic regression model, oral anticoagulants (OR 7.8; 95% CI 2.8–21.5), previous peptic ulcer (3.8; 2.6–4.9), treatment for heart failure (5.9; 2.3–13.1), oral corticosteroid use (2.7; 1.3–4.5), treatment for diabetes (3.1; 1.2–4.3), and current smoking (1.6; 1.2–2.0) were all independent risk factors. No association was found with use of calcium channel antagonists. Odds ratios for concomitant NSAID usage were multiplicative with the exception of current smoking.

CONCLUSIONS Some 45% of admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding in England and Wales in those aged 60 or more are calculated to be attributable to, or associated with, these accessory risk factors, which, together with those associated with aspirin or other NSAID use will account for over 80% of predisposing factors to ulcer bleeding.

  • peptic ulcer
  • risk factors
  • anti-inflammatory drugs

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  • Abbreviations used in this paper:
    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug