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Vector manometry and LOS dynamics
  2. SM SCOTT,
  1. Academic Department of Surgery and Gastrointestinal Physiology Unit
  2. The Royal London Hospital
  3. Whitechapel
  4. London E1 1BB, UK
  1. Dr Jenkinson email:ajenkin235{at}

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Editor,—We read with interest the recent paper by Kahrilas et al on the effect of hiatus hernia on gastro-oesophageal junction pressure (Gut1999;44:476–482). These authors used a novel technique that combined vector manometry, fluoroscopy, and endoscopic tagging of anatomical landmarks to map the differences in pressure profile between patients with and without hiatus hernia. Analysis of the vector profiles, taken at end expiration, revealed two distinct high pressure zones in each of the seven patients with hiatus hernia. These were thought to represent an axial separation of the internal and external components of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS). When these high pressure zones were repositioned to represent a simulated reduction of the hernia, the vector profile took on the appearance of a normal sphincter. This study drew some interesting conclusions regarding the effect of hiatal herniation on LOS pressure dynamics. We would like to raise two issues with the authors—the method of analysis used and the reproducibility of vector manometry.

With regard to the methodology of this paper, the numerical vector pressure analysis used an end expiratory gastric baseline whereas the vector profiling was referenced using an oesophageal pressure baseline. This is in contrast with previous studies which have uniformly used a gastric baseline in vector analysis and profiling.1-3 If a gastric baseline had been applied to this study, the distal ‘crural’ high pressure zone (3 mm Hg) would have been less evident. These authors have thus presented a fundamental change in the methodology of vector profiling.

Our own experiences with vector manometry of the LOS have shown that this technique has poor reproducibility. We have performed rapid pull-through vector manometry (8 channel catheter, 0.5 ml/min perfusion, 0.5 cm/s pull-back speed) 10 times each on 17 volunteers. Using a gastric baseline we found a median coefficient of variance of 42% for LOS vector volume and 19% for LOS pressure with widely differing three dimensional vector profiles in individual patients (unpublished observation; fig 1).

Figure 1

Variation of lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) vector volume from 10 pull-throughs at end tidal expiration in a single normal volunteer. Coefficient of variance=43%.

We believe that three factors contribute to the poor reproducibility of vector manometry. Firstly, the point at which respiration is suspended is critical in defining vector volume. It is likely that the point at which respiration is suspended varies from patient to patient and from pull-through to pull-through—that is, not all patients suspend respiration at the end tidal point. Secondly, it is unlikely that the diaphragm is completely relaxed during a 15 second expiratory breath hold. It is speculated that crural activity would therefore be expected. Finally, there can be significant minute to minute variation in lower oesophageal sphincter tone.4

The poor reproducibility of vector manometry has been described previously by Bemelman et al using rapid pull-through vector manometry (8 channel catheter, 0.7 ml/s pull-back speed). They showed that mean LOS pressure varied from 20 to 80 mm Hg in 20 pull-throughs performed in one hour in the same patient.3

Kahrilas et al did not mention the number of pull-throughs for each patient or the reproducibility of vector profiling. It is therefore difficult to draw accurate conclusions on the size and position of high pressure zones, particularly when the study population is limited to seven patients.