Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Wotherspoon criteria combined with B cell clonality analysis by advanced polymerase chain reaction technology discriminates covert gastric marginal zone lymphoma from chronic gastritis
  1. M Hummel1,*,
  2. S Oeschger2,*,
  3. T F E Barth3,*,
  4. C Loddenkemper1,
  5. S B Cogliatti4,
  6. A Marx5,
  7. H-H Wacker6,
  8. A C Feller7,
  9. H-W Bernd7,
  10. M-L Hansmann2,
  11. H Stein1,
  12. P Möller3
  1. 1Institute of Pathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany
  2. 2Institute of Pathology, University Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany
  3. 3Institute of Pathology, University Hospital, Ulm, Germany
  4. 4Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital, St Gallen, Switzerland
  5. 5Institute of Pathology, University Hospital, Würzburg, Germany
  6. 6Institute of Pathology, University Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany
  7. 7Institute of Pathology, University Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Germany
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr M Hummel
    Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12200 Berlin, Germany; Michael.Hummel{at}


Background and aims: Gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a well defined B cell lymphoma yet often impossible to distinguish from severe chronic gastritis on morphological grounds alone. Therefore, it was suggested to use the clonality of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (H) genes, as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a decisive criterion. However, there is controversy as to whether B cell clonality also exists in chronic gastritis, hence rendering this approach futile at present.

Methods: An expert panel re-examined the histology and immunohistochemistry of a total of 97 cases of gastric biopsies, including clearcut marginal zone lymphoma, chronic gastritis, and ambiguous cases, applying the Wotherspoon criteria on the basis of haematoxylin-eosin and CD20 immunostainings. In addition, a new and advanced PCR system for detection of clonal IgH gene rearrangements was independently applied in two institutions in each case.

Results: The overall IgH clonality assessments of both institutions were in total agreement. Overt lymphoma (Wotherspoon score 5) was clonal in 24/26 cases. Chronic gastritis (Wotherspoon scores 1 and 2) was not clonal in 52/53 cases; the clonal case being Wotherspoon score 2. Of 18 cases with ambiguous histology (Wotherspoon scores 3 and 4) four were clonal.

Conclusions: Using advanced PCR technology, clonal gastritis is extremely rare, if it exists at all. Thus B cell clonality in Wotherspoon 3 and 4 cases is regarded as suitable for definitively diagnosing gastric marginal zone lymphoma.

  • Ig, immunoglobulin
  • PCR, polymerase chain reaction
  • MALT, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
  • LEL, lymphoepithelial lesions
  • gene rearrangement
  • gastritis
  • lymphoma

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Published online first 19 January 2006

  • * M Hummel, S Oeschger, and T F E Barth contributed equally to this work.

  • Supported by grants from the Deutsche Krebshilfe (70-3173-Tr3 and 70-3139-Fe1), the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (01 GI 0396, “Kompetenznetz Maligne Lymphome”), the Mildred-Scheel-Stiftung (106367 to PM and TFEB), and the SAKK (Schweizerische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Klinische Krebsforschung).

  • Conflict of interest: None declared.

Linked Articles