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Gastrointestinal endoscopy: past and future
  1. M V Sivak
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr M V Sivak Jr
    Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA; mvs4{at}


The former editor of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy reflects on the history of endoscopy, which reveals much about the mechanisms whereby innovation occurred, and attempts to forecast the future. Endoscopic technological development in most industrialised countries will be determined largely by various combinations of many external factors together with the further development of virtual imaging

  • CCD, charge coupled device
  • EUS, endoscopic ultrasonography
  • NIH, National Institutes of Health
  • endoscopy
  • endoscopic ultrasonography
  • endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

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  • Conflict of interest: None declared.