Background: Coeliac disease may be regarded as refractory disease (RCD) when symptoms persist or recur despite strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. RCD may be subdivided into types I and II with a phenotypically normal and aberrant intraepithelial T-cell population, respectively. RCD I seems to respond well to azathioprine/prednisone therapy. RCD II is usually resistant to any known therapy and transition into enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is common.
Aim: To provide further insight into RCD and the development of EATL, by reporting on long-term survival and risk of transition of RCD into EATL in a large cohort of patients with complicated coeliac disease.
Design and Methods: Retrospective comparison of responses to therapy in four groups of patients with complicated coeliac disease: 43, RCD I; 50, RCD II (total), of whom 26 with RCD II developed EATL after a period of refractoriness to a gluten-free diet (secondary EATL) and 13 were EATL patients without preceding history of complicated coeliac disease (de novo EATL).
Results: No coeliac-disease-related mortality was recognised in the RCD I group. The overall 5-year survival in the RCD I group it was 96%; in the RCD II (total) group was 58%; and in the RCD II group after developing EATL it was only 8%. The 2-year survival in the de novo EATL group was 20% versus 15% in secondary EATL group (p = 0.63). Twenty-eight (56%) of the 50 patients with RCD II died, 23 (46%) due to EATL, 4 due to a progressive refractory state with emaciation and 1 from neurocoeliac disease.
Conclusion: Remarkably, no patient with RCD I developed RCD II or EATL within the mean follow-up period of 5 years (range 2–15 years). A total of 52% of the RCD II patients developed EATL within 4–6 years after the diagnosis of RCD II. More aggressive and targeted therapies seem necessary in RCD II and EATL.
- 2-CDA, cadribine
- anti-tTg, anti-tissue transglutaminase
- ASCT, autologous stem-cell transplantation
- CHOP, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicine, vincristine and prednisone
- CT, computed tomography
- DBE, double-balloon enteroscopy
- EATL, enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma
- EMA, anti-endomysium antibodies
- PET, positron emission tomography
- RCD, refractory coeliac disease
- VCE, video capsule endoscopy
- refractory coeliac disease
- stem-cell transplantation
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.