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Norepinephrine increases the pathogenic potential of Campylobacter jejuni
  1. T A Cogan1,
  2. A O Thomas1,
  3. L E N Rees1,
  4. A H Taylor1,
  5. M A Jepson2,
  6. P H Williams3,
  7. J Ketley3,
  8. T J Humphrey1
  1. 1Division of Veterinary Pathology, Infection and Immunity, School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
  2. 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
  3. 3Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr T A Cogan
    Division of Veterinary Pathology, Infection and Immunity, School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK; tristan.cogan{at}


Background:Campylobacter jejuni can cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, ranging from enteritis and diarrhoea to severe inflammation, profuse bloody diarrhoea and chronic relapsing infection. Norepinephrine (NE) levels in the intestine increase under conditions of stress and trauma, and are thought to result in spill over of NE into the intestinal lumen. NE is known to stimulate the growth of a range of bacterial species, and to increase the pathogenicity of Escherichia coli.

Aim: To determine the effects of NE on the pathogenic potential of C jejuni in a model system.

Methods:C jejuni was grown in iron-replete and iron-limited media in the presence and absence of 100 μM NE. Several virulence-associated characteristics, including motility and cell invasion, were measured.

Results: When C jejuni was grown in iron-limited media in the presence of NE, growth rate, motility and invasion of cultured epithelial cells were increased compared with cultures grown in the absence of NE. Bacteria exposed to NE during growth also caused greater subsequent disruption of cultured epithelial cell monolayers, inducing widespread breakdown of tight junctions.

Conclusion: Exposure to NE causes an increase in the virulence-associated properties of Campylobacter. Stress and concomitant infection could therefore be contributory factors to the variable presentation of this disease.

  • BA, blood agar
  • CMH, Mueller–Hinton broth treated with chelex
  • cpm, counts per minute
  • DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium
  • MH, Mueller–Hinton
  • MOI, multiplicity of infection
  • NCTC, National Collection of Type Cultures
  • NE, norepinephrine
  • PBS, phosphate-buffered saline
  • TEER, transepithelial electrical resistance

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  • Published Online First 21 December 2006

  • Funding: This study was funded by the BBSRC, the Food Standards Agency and the Health Protection Agency. The University of Bristol cell imaging facility was established with MRC funding.

  • Competing interests: None.

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