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Malignancies in cases with screening-identified evidence of coeliac disease: a long-term population-based cohort study

Abstract

Background and aims: The association between diagnosed coeliac disease and malignancy has been established. The present study was conducted to determine whether previously unrecognised and thus untreated adults with screening-identified evidence of coeliac disease carry an increased risk of malignancies.

Methods: A Finnish population-based adult-representative cohort of 8000 individuals was drawn in 1978–1980. Stored sera of the participants with no history of coeliac disease or any malignancy were tested for immunoglobulin A (IgA) class tissue transglutaminase antibodies (Eu-tTG) in 2001. Positive sera were further analysed by another tissue transglutaminase antibody test (Celikey tTG) and for endomysial antibodies (EMAs). Malignant diseases were extracted from the nationwide database and antibody-positive cases were compared with negative cases during a follow-up of nearly 20 years.

Results: Altogether 565 of all the 6849 analysed serum samples drawn in 1978–80 were Eu-tTG positive. In further analyses, 202 (2.9%) of the participants were Celikey tTG positive and 73 (1.1%) were EMA positive. The overall risk of malignancy was not increased among antibody-positive cases in the follow-up of two decades; the age- and sex-adjusted relative risk was 0.91 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.37) for those who were Celikey tTG positive and 0.67 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.61) for those who were EMA positive.

Conclusions: The prognosis of adults with unrecognised coeliac disease with positive coeliac disease antibody status is good as regards the overall risk of malignancies. Thus, current diagnostic practice is sufficient and there is no need for earlier diagnosis of coeliac disease by mass screening on the basis of the findings of this study.

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