Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Gut microbes define liver cancer risk in mice exposed to chemical and viral transgenic hepatocarcinogens
  1. J G Fox1,2,3,
  2. Y Feng1,
  3. E J Theve1,
  4. A R Raczynski1,3,
  5. J L A Fiala3,
  6. A L Doernte1,
  7. M Williams3,
  8. J L McFaline2,3,
  9. J M Essigmann2,3,
  10. D B Schauer1,2,3,
  11. S R Tannenbaum2,3,
  12. P C Dedon2,3,
  13. S A Weinman4,
  14. S M Lemon5,
  15. R C Fry2,3,
  16. A B Rogers1,2
  1. 1
    Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  2. 2
    Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  3. 3
    Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  4. 4
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
  5. 5
    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr A B Rogers, Campus Box 7431, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431, USA; abr{at}


Background and aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently results from synergism between chemical and infectious liver carcinogens. Worldwide, the highest incidence of HCC is in regions endemic for the foodborne contaminant aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recently, gut microbes have been implicated in multisystemic diseases including obesity and diabetes. Here, the hypothesis that specific intestinal bacteria promote liver cancer was tested in chemical and viral transgenic mouse models.

Methods: Helicobacter-free C3H/HeN mice were inoculated with AFB1 and/or Helicobacter hepaticus. The incidence, multiplicity and surface area of liver tumours were quantitated at 40 weeks. Molecular pathways involved in tumourigenesis were analysed by microarray, quantitative real-time PCR, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, ELISA, western blot and immunohistochemistry. In a separate experiment, C57BL/6 FL-N/35 mice harbouring a full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) transgene were crossed with C3H/HeN mice and cancer rates compared between offspring with and without H hepaticus.

Results: Intestinal colonisation by H hepaticus was sufficient to promote aflatoxin- and HCV transgene-induced HCC. Neither bacterial translocation to the liver nor induction of hepatitis was necessary. From its preferred niche in the intestinal mucus layer, H hepaticus activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-regulated networks associated with innate and T helper 1 (Th1)-type adaptive immunity both in the lower bowel and liver. Biomarkers indicative of tumour progression included hepatocyte turnover, Wnt/β-catenin activation and oxidative injury with decreased phagocytic clearance of damaged cells.

Conclusions: Enteric microbiota define HCC risk in mice exposed to carcinogenic chemicals or hepatitis virus transgenes. These results have implications for human liver cancer risk assessment and prevention.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • ▸ Additional tables and a figure are published online only at

  • Funding National Institutes of Health ES 02109 pilot (ABR), CA 67529 and RR 07036 (JGF), and CA 26731 (SRT).

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and Peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Linked Articles

  • Digest
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and British Society of Gastroenterology