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Toll-like receptors 2/4 agonists: a potential strategy for preventing invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma
  1. Pengfei Yu,
  2. Xiangdong Cheng,
  3. Jianmin Guo,
  4. Xinbao Wang
  1. Department of Abdominal Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Pengfei Yu, Department of Abdominal Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, 38# Guangji Road, Hangzhou 310022, China; yupengfei23{at}

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In their recent study, Mencin and colleagues1 summarised the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR ligands in the pathophysiology of some chronic liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discussed the potential role of TLR agonists, antagonists and probiotics for the treatment of these diseases.

As we know, the long-term prognosis of HCC remains unsatisfactory even after surgical resection and chemotherapy because of a high recurrence rate. Invasion, together with metastasis formation, are commonly associated with the HCC recurrence and represent the most common reasons for the poor prognosis. However, fewer agents are currently available to block or postpone HCC progression.

Mencin and colleagues discussed the repressive effects of TLR agonists on the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV, which are two risk factors of developing HCC. Regarding our study, we would like to bring to your attention that the TLR 2/4 agonist …

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval Animals used in this study were maintained in accordance with the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH publication No. 85-23, revised 1996) and the Policy of Animal Care and Use Committee of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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