Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Case–control studies of risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis in two United Kingdom populations
  1. M I Prince1,
  2. S J Ducker2,
  3. O F W James2
  1. 1Department of Gastroenterology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Manchester, UK
  2. 2Liver Research: Institute of Cellular Medicine, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr M I Prince, Department of Gastroenterology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK


Objective The aetiology of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is largely unknown. Previous studies have indicated that both environmental and genetic risk factors may be important.

Design We undertook a large case–control study to study possible risk factors in more detail. All patients were sent postal questionnaires on risk factors.

Patients We identified two sets of PBC cases from a geographically defined epidemiology study (epidemiological cases) and from a survey of the national patient support group (Foundation cases). Controls were selected from the electoral roll in strata matched to epidemiological cases by quartiles of age and sex.

Results Analysable questionnaires were received from 318 epidemiological cases, 2258 Foundation cases and 2438 controls. Statistically significant associations were seen with smoking (OR=1.63 (95% CI, 1.27 to 2.09)), epidemiological cases versus controls (1.57 (1.39 to 1.78)), Foundation cases versus controls, hair dye use (1.37 (0.98 to 1.80)), 1.25 (1.07 to 1.46)), and with previous histories of psoriasis (1.90 (1.21 to 1.91), 2.33 (1.03 to 1.73)), urinary infections (2.06 (1.56 to 0.1.73), 1.80 (1.54 to 2.11)), and shingles (2.38 (1.82 to 3.11), 1.23 (1.08 to 1.43)) and previous autoimmune diseases. Alcohol consumption was negatively associated with PBC (0.57 (0.39 to 0.83), 0.73 (0.61 to 0.79)). We did not identify any associations with obstetric risk factors except a previous history of obstetric cholestasis (2.13 (1.25 to 3.59), 2.20 (1.61 to 3.03)).

Conclusion We have confirmed that among environmental risk factors, smoking and the use of some cosmetics as well as urinary infections appear important. Among possible genetic risk factors a family history of PBC is a strong association and that a previous history of obstetric cholestasis as another putative ‘genetic’ risk.

  • Liver cirrhosis
  • biliary
  • primary biliary cirrhosis
  • case–control study

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding This study was supported by Medical Research Council funding to MIP. The grant was MRC clinician training fellowship 5816.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval The study received ethics approval from all relevant local ethics committees. The study was approved by Northern and Yorkshire MREC (approval reference 1/3/34) and by the following LRECs: Newcastle and North Tyneside, Gateshead and South Tyneside, County Durham, Northumberland and Sunderland.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Linked Articles

  • Digest
    Emad El-Omar Severine Vermeire Alexander Gerbes