Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Possible involvement of T helper type 2 responses to Toll-like receptor ligands in IgG4-related sclerosing disease


We report a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease involving the pancreas, liver and salivary glands. Massive infiltration of IgG4-expressing plasma cells was seen in the liver and submandibular lymph nodes. Interestingly, accumulation of IgG4-expressing plasma cells was also seen in the colon and terminal ileum. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from this patient exhibited enhanced production of IgG4 and interleukin-10 upon stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands as compared with those from a healthy control. In contrast, production of tumour necrosis factor α and interferon γ by PBMCs from this patient was markedly reduced. Since colonic mucosa is always exposed to TLR ligands derived from commensal organisms, the results of immunological studies suggest that enhanced T helper type 2 responses to intestinal microflora may underlie the immunopathogenesis in this patient with IgG4-related sclerosing disease.

  • IgG4
  • immunology
  • pancreatic pathology
  • pancreatitis
  • Th2
  • TLR

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Linked Articles

  • Digest
    Emad El-Omar Severine Vermeire Alexander Gerbes