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Helicobacter pylori treatment in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance

Abstract

With few exceptions, the most commonly recommended triple Helicobacter pylori regimen (proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin) now provides unacceptably low treatment success. A review of worldwide results suggests that successful eradication using a triple regimen is not consistently observed in any population. Clinicians should use ‘only use what works locally’ and ignore consensus statements and society guidelines if they are not consistent with local results. Clinical trials should be result based, with the goal of identifying regimens with >90–95% success. New treatments should be only be compared with the currently locally effective treatment (>90%) or a historical untreated control (which has been shown to reliably yield 0% eradication); trials using placebos or treatments known to be inferior are with rare exceptions unethical. If a highly effective regimen is not available locally, we recommend trying a 14 day concomitant quadruple treatment regimen containing a PPI, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole; 10 day sequential treatment (PPI plus amoxicillin for 5 days followed by a PPI, clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole for 5 days); or 14 day bismuth-containing quadruple treatments. Treatments needing further evaluation include those containing furazolidone or nitazoxanide, hybrids of sequential–concomitant therapies and amoxicillin–PPI dual therapy with PPI doses such that they maintain intragastric pH >6.

  • Antibiotics
  • antibiotic treatment
  • amoxicillin
  • clarithromycin
  • eradication treatment
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • metronidazole
  • proton pump inhibitors
  • tetracycline
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