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Simple non-invasive fibrosis scoring systems can reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
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  1. Stuart McPherson1,
  2. Stephen F Stewart1,
  3. Elsbeth Henderson1,
  4. Alastair D Burt2,
  5. Christopher P Day2
  1. 1Liver Unit, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
  2. 2Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Stuart McPherson, Liver Unit, Level 6, Freeman Hospital, Freeman Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; stumcpherson11{at}yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Background Accurate evaluation of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is important to identify patients who may develop complications. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of simple non-invasive tests in identifying advanced fibrosis among patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.

Methods Consecutive patients with biopsy proven NAFLD were recruited from the Newcastle Hospitals Fatty Liver Clinic from 2003 to 2009. The AST/ALT ratio, AST to platelet ratio index, BARD (weighted sum of BMI>28=1 point, AST/ALT ratio>0.8=2 points, diabetes=1 point), FIB-4 (age×AST (IU/l)/platelet count (×109/litre)×√ALT (IU/l)) and NAFLD fibrosis scores were calculated from blood tests taken at time of biopsy.

Results 145 patients (82 male (61%), mean age 51±12 years) were included. The mean body mass index was 35±5 kg/m2. 73 subjects (50%) had diabetes. 93 patients (64%) had non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. 27 (19%) had advanced fibrosis (Kleiner stage 3–4). The FIB-4 score had the best diagnostic accuracy for advanced fibrosis (area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.86), followed by AST/ALT ratio (AUROC 0.83), NAFLD fibrosis score (AUROC 0.81), BARD (AUROC 0.77) and AST to platelet ratio index (AUROC 0.67). The AST/ALT ratio, BARD score, FIB-4 and NAFLD fibrosis scores had negative predictive values greater than 90% (93%, 95%, 95% and 92% respectively). Positive predictive values were modest. In order to exclude advanced fibrosis liver biopsy could potentially be avoided in 69% with AST/ALT ratio, 62% with FIB-4, 52% with NAFLD fibrosis score and 38% with BARD.

Conclusions The ALT/AST ratio, FIB-4 and NAFLD fibrosis scores can reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in a high proportion of patients with NAFLD, allowing liver biopsy to be used in a more directed manner.

  • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
  • fibrosis
  • non-invasive markers
  • non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • fatty liver
  • hepatic fibrosis
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Footnotes

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Newcastle Hospitals Ethics Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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