With a prevalence affecting over 30% of HIV infected patients, coinfection with hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus remains one of the most frequent comorbidities in this population, with a significant impact in terms of morbidity and mortality associated with liver disease. Recent findings in the physiopathology of HIV in the liver have confirmed that it may contribute, along with hepatotoxicity of antiretrovirals and the burden of metabolic diseases, to a more rapid progression of liver fibrosis, especially when there is underlying chronic hepatitis coinfection. Both fields of research and clinical appraisal of HBV and HCV coinfection are rapidly evolving and prompt a change in the former paradigms of clinical care and management of chronic hepatic coinfection in the context of HIV. The advent of anti-HCV direct antiviral agents has indeed completely shaken up the treatment guidelines for HCV, and the tricky management of these new agents with antiretrovirals means referring patients to specialised centres. In HBV coinfection, therapeutic options have not changed recently but new challenges have emerged regarding the management of low replicating HBV-DNA in optimally treated patients and long term exposure to antivirals. Finally, the global increase in life expectancy in HIV infected patients has been accompanied in coinfected patients by a higher risk of emergence of end stage liver diseases for which access to orthotopic liver transplantation and innovative procedures such as targeted hepatocellular carcinoma therapies should be facilitated.
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Funding KL's research programmes are supported by SIDACTION and ANRS (French Agency for Research on AIDS and Hepatitis). JR's research programmes are supported by NEAT and DZIF.
Competing interests KL has received consulting fees, honoraria for educational activities, travel grants and study grants from Abbott, BMS, Gilead, Merck, Janssen and ViiV Healthcare. JR has received consulting fees or honoraria for educational activities from Abbott, BMS, BI, Gilead, Merck, Janssen and Vertex.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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