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Original article
Mouse Paneth cell antimicrobial function is independent of Nod2
  1. Michael T Shanahan1,
  2. Ian M Carroll1,
  3. Emily Grossniklaus1,
  4. Andrew White1,
  5. Richard J von Furstenberg1,
  6. Roshonda Barner2,
  7. Anthony A Fodor2,
  8. Susan J Henning1,
  9. R Balfour Sartor1,
  10. Ajay S Gulati3
  1. 1Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  2. 2Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
  3. 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ajay S Gulati, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB# 7229, 230 MacNider Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; ajay_gulati{at}


Objective Although polymorphisms of the NOD2 gene predispose to the development of ileal Crohn's disease, the precise mechanisms of this increased susceptibility remain unclear. Previous work has shown that transcript expression of the Paneth cell (PC) antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) α-defensin 4 and α-defensin-related sequence 10 are selectively decreased in Nod2−/− mice. However, the specific mouse background used in this previous study is unclear. In light of recent evidence suggesting that mouse strain strongly influences PC antimicrobial activity, we sought to characterise PC AMP function in commercially available Nod2−/− mice on a C57BL/6 (B6) background. Specifically, we hypothesised that Nod2−/− B6 mice would display reduced AMP expression and activity.

Design Wild-type (WT) and Nod2−/− B6 ileal AMP expression was assessed via real-time PCR, acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. PCs were enumerated using flow cytometry. Functionally, α-defensin bactericidal activity was evaluated using a gel-overlay antimicrobial assay. Faecal microbial composition was determined using 454-sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene in cohoused WT and Nod2−/− littermates.

Results WT and Nod2−/− B6 mice displayed similar PC AMP expression patterns, equivalent α-defensin profiles, and identical antimicrobial activity against commensal and pathogenic bacterial strains. Furthermore, minimal differences in gut microbial composition were detected between the two cohoused, littermate mouse groups.

Conclusions Our data reveal that Nod2 does not directly regulate PC antimicrobial activity in B6 mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that previously reported Nod2-dependent influences on gut microbial composition may be overcome by environmental factors, such as cohousing with WT littermates.


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