Objective Congenital sodium diarrhoea (CSD) refers to a form of secretory diarrhoea with intrauterine onset and high faecal losses of sodium without congenital malformations. The molecular basis for CSD remains unknown. We clinically characterised a cohort of infants with CSD and set out to identify disease-causing mutations by genome-wide genetic testing.
Design We performed whole-exome sequencing and chromosomal microarray analyses in 4 unrelated patients, followed by confirmatory Sanger sequencing of the likely disease-causing mutations in patients and in their family members, followed by functional studies.
Results We identified novel de novo missense mutations in GUCY2C, the gene encoding receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) in 4 patients with CSD. One patient developed severe, early-onset IBD and chronic arthritis at 4 years of age. GC-C is an intestinal brush border membrane-bound guanylate cyclase, which functions as receptor for guanylin, uroguanylin and Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin. Mutations in GUCY2C were present in different intracellular domains of GC-C, and were activating mutations that enhanced intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate accumulation in a ligand-independent and ligand-stimulated manner, following heterologous expression in HEK293T cells.
Conclusions Dominant gain-of-function GUCY2C mutations lead to elevated intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels and could explain the chronic diarrhoea as a result of decreased intestinal sodium and water absorption and increased chloride secretion. Thus, mutations in GUCY2C indicate a role for this receptor in the pathogenesis of sporadic CSD.
- CHRONIC DIARRHOEA
- GUANYLATE CYCLASE
- BACTERIAL ENTEROTOXINS
- PAEDIATRIC DIARRHOEA
- INTESTINAL ION TRANSPORT
This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.