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Sebaceous tumours: more than skin deep


Clinical presentation A 77-year-old man presented to our skin cancer centre with various cutaneous tumours occurring in 2006–2017. Histopathology showed a ‘hidradenocarcinoma’ on the left upper back (2006) and a sebaceous adenoma (figure 1) on the left shoulder (2011). In 2017, he developed a sebaceous carcinoma on the middle upper back, which manifested as a slowly enlarging, asymptomatic nodule. Medical history was significant for curative resection of colorectal cancer in 1988.

Figure 1

Clinical appearance of the sebaceous adenoma on the patient’s left shoulder in 2011.

The most recent lesion was subjected to extensive immunohistochemical assessment. The neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin 7, cluster of differentiation antigen 10, adipophilin, androgen receptor, epithelial membrane antigen, KI67 antigen, MLH1 and PMS2, but stained negative for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, prostate-specific antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19/9, CDX2 protein, hepatocyte-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, cluster of differentiation antigen 117 and cytokeratin 19. Given the variety of histological manifestations of the patient’s skin neoplasms, further studies were performed. They revealed positive nuclear expression signals for MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2, whereas MSH2 expression was absent in almost all tumour cells (figure 2). Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and colonoscopy did not detect any pathological findings. However, molecular genetic analysis of peripheral blood showed a heterozygous deletion of exon 7 of the MSH2 gene. Subsequently, several family members tested positive for MSH2 mutations and underwent genetic counselling.

Figure 2

(A–D) Histopathological images of the patient’s most recent lesion (diaminobenzidine, original magnification, ×100). The tumour cells demonstrated strong nuclear positivity for MLH1 (A) and PMS2 (B), but were essentially negative for MSH6 (C) and MSH2 (D).

What is your diagnosis?Diagnosis: Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS).

  • colorectal cancer screening
  • HNPCC syndrome
  • histopathology
  • immunohistochemistry
  • muir-torre- syndrome

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