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The Robarts Histopathology Index (RHI) is a recently validated instrument that measures histological disease activity in ulcerative colitis.1 Given the increasing importance and use of histology in UC as a treatment outcome, additional evaluation and clarification of the definitions for histological remission and response using the RHI is needed.
During the development of the RHI, we demonstrated that most patients in clinical or endoscopic remission had an RHI≤6. However, an RHI≤6 should not be used to define histological remission as was recently suggested by Magro et al.2 Rather, the minimal criteria for histological remission should be the absence of neutrophils from the mucosa (both lamina propria and epithelium), as neutrophils have long been used to define histologically active disease.3 Furthermore, the presence of mucosal neutrophils in biopsies from patients in clinical remission predicts clinical relapse.4 Using the RHI, an absence of mucosal neutrophils is defined as RHI≤3 with the additional requirement of subscores of 0 for lamina propria neutrophils and 0 for neutrophils in epithelium. Given that basal plasmacytosis has also been suggested as an important histological predictor of adverse outcomes,5 an alternate histological endpoint that requires both the absence of mucosal neutrophils and basal plasmacytosis defined as an RHI≤1 could be attractive. However, this composite definition might be too …
Contributors All authors contributed to writing and editing the article.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests RKP has received consulting fees from Seres Therapeutics, Eli Lilly, Protagonist and Genentech outside the submitted work. RK reports fees from Janssen, AbbVie, Shire, Pfizer and Takeda Canada and from Robarts Clinical Trials outside the submitted work. GRD reports consulting fees from Robarts Clinical Trials; personal fees from Ablynx, Amakem, Amgen, AM Pharma, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Cosmo, Celgene, Celtrion, Covidien, Engene, Galapagos, Medimetrics, Mundipharma, Mitsubishi, Novonordisk, Pfizer, Receptos, Salix, Sandoz, Setpoint, Shire, Teva, Tigenix, Topivert, Versant and Vifor; grants and personal fees from Abbvie, Ferring, Glaxo Smith Kline, Jansen Biologics, Hospira, Merck Sharp Dome, Prometheus Labs, Robarts Clinical Trials, Takeda and Tillotts; and grants from Falk Pharma and Photopill, outside the submitted work. WJS reports consulting fees from University of Western Ontario (previous owner of Robarts Clinical Trials), Abbvie, Akros Pharma, Allergan, Ambrx, Amgen, Ardelyx, Arena Pharmaceuticals, Atlantic Pharmaceuticals, Avaxia, Biogen, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Bristol Meyers Squibb, Celgene, Conatus, Cosmo Technologies, Escalier Biosciences, Ferring, Ferring Research Institute, Forward Pharma, Galapagos, Genentech, Gilead Sciences, Immune Pharmaceuticals, Index Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Pharma, Lilly, Medimmune, Mesoblast, Miraca Life Sciences, Nivalis Therapeutics, Novartis, Nutrition Science Partners, Oppilan Pharma, Otsuka, Palatin, Paul Hastings, Pfizer, Precision IBD, Progenity, Prometheus Laboratories, Qu Biologics, Regeneron, Ritter Pharmaceuticals, Robarts Clinical Trials, Salix, Seattle Genetics, Seres Therapeutics, Shire, Sigmoid Biotechnologies, Takeda, Theradiag, Theravance, Tigenix, Tillotts Pharma, UCB Pharma, Vascular Biogenics and Vivelix; research grants from Atlantic Healthcare Limited, Amgen, Genentech, Gilead Sciences, Abbvie, Janssen, Takeda, Lilly and Celgene/Receptos; payments for lectures/speaker’s bureau from Abbvie, Janssen and Takeda; and stock/stock options in Escalier Biosciences, Oppilan Pharma, Precision IBD, Progenity and Ritter Pharmaceuticals. JJ is an employee of Robarts Clinical Trials. BGF reports grant/research support from Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Tillotts Pharma AG, AbbVie, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Centocor, Elan/Biogen, UCB Pharma, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Genentech, ActoGenix and Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc.; consulting fees from Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Centocor, Elan/Biogen, Janssen-Ortho, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, UCB Pharma, AbbVie, Astra Zeneca, Serono, Genentech, Tillotts Pharma AG, Unity Pharmaceuticals, Albireo Pharma, Given Imaging, Salix Pharmaceuticals, Novonordisk, GSK, Actogenix, Prometheus Therapeutics and Diagnostics, Athersys, Axcan, Gilead, Pfizer, Shire, Wyeth, Zealand Pharma, Zyngenia, GiCare Pharma and Sigmoid Pharma; and speaker’s bureau fees from UCB, AbbVie and J&J/Janssen outside the submitted work. NVC reports consulting fees from Janssen, Pfizer, Takeda and UCB. VJ has received consulting fees from AbbVie, Sandoz, Takeda, Janssen, Robarts Clinical Trials, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Arena, Topivert; speaker’s fees from Takeda, Janssen, Shire, and Ferring.
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