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Fetal and early life antibiotics exposure and very early onset inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study
  1. Anne K Örtqvist1,
  2. Cecilia Lundholm1,
  3. Jonas Halfvarson2,
  4. Jonas F Ludvigsson1,3,
  5. Catarina Almqvist1,4
  1. 1 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  2. 2 Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  3. 3 Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden
  4. 4 Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology Unit at Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  1. Correspondence to Professor Catarina Almqvist, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE 171 77, Sweden; Catarina.Almqvist{at}ki.se

Footnotes

  • Contributors The study was initiated by JFL and CA, and designed by AKÖ, CL, JFL and CA. AKÖ and CL performed the statistical analysis and wrote the initial draft together with JFL, JH and CA. All authors contributed with invaluable support for data analyses, interpretation of findings and critical revision of the article. CA obtained the financial support. All authors had full access to data, reviewed and approved the final version of the article submitted for publication. AKÖ, CL, JFL, JH and CA are the guarantors for the study and accept full responsibility for the work, had access to the data and controlled the decision to publish.

  • Funding Financial support was provided from the Swedish Research Council through the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in the Social and Medical Sciences (SIMSAM) framework grant no. 340-2013-5867, grants provided by the Stockholm County Council (ALF projects), the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and the Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association’s Research Foundation.

  • Disclaimer All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The Regional Ethical Review Board in Stockholm, Sweden.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors The study was initiated by JFL and CA, and designed by AKÖ, CL, JFL and CA. AKÖ and CL performed the statistical analysis and wrote the initial draft together with JFL, JH and CA. All authors contributed with invaluable support for data analyses, interpretation of findings and critical revision of the article. CA obtained the financial support. All authors had full access to data, reviewed and approved the final version of the article submitted for publication. AKÖ, CL, JFL, JH and CA are the guarantors for the study and accept full responsibility for the work, had access to the data and controlled the decision to publish.

  • Funding Financial support was provided from the Swedish Research Council through the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in the Social and Medical Sciences (SIMSAM) framework grant no. 340-2013-5867, grants provided by the Stockholm County Council (ALF projects), the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and the Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association’s Research Foundation.

  • Disclaimer All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The Regional Ethical Review Board in Stockholm, Sweden.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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