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Gut commensal Parabacteroides goldsteinii plays a predominant role in the anti-obesity effects of polysaccharides isolated from Hirsutella sinensis
  1. Tsung-Ru Wu1,2,
  2. Chuan-Sheng Lin1,3,4,5,6,
  3. Chih-Jung Chang1,3,4,5,6,
  4. Tzu-Lung Lin1,
  5. Jan Martel3,5,
  6. Yun-Fei Ko5,7,8,
  7. David M Ojcius3,5,9,
  8. Chia-Chen Lu10,
  9. John D Young3,5,7,8,11,
  10. Hsin-Chih Lai1,3,4,5,6,12,13,14
  1. 1 Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan
  2. 2 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan
  3. 3 Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan
  4. 4 Microbiota Research Center, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan
  5. 5 Chang Gung Immunology Consortium, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gueishan, Taiwan
  6. 6 Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan
  7. 7 Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan
  8. 8 Biochemical Engineering Research Center, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taiwan
  9. 9 Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of the Pacific, Arthur Dugoni School of Dentistry, San Francisco, California, USA
  10. 10 Department of Respiratory Therapy, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, Taiwan
  11. 11 Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology, Rockefeller University, New York, USA
  12. 12 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gueishan, Taiwan
  13. 13 Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Gueishan, Taiwan
  14. 14 Research Center for Food and Cosmetic Safety, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Gueishan, Taiwan
  1. Correspondence to Dr John D Young, Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan; jdyoung{at}mail.cgu.edu.tw and Dr Hsin-Chih Lai, Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan; hclai{at}mail.cgu.edu.tw

Footnotes

  • T-RW, C-SL and C-JC contributed equally.

  • Contributors T-RW, C-SL and C-JC conceived the project, contributed to experimental design, performed experiments, interpreted the results, prepared the figures and wrote the manuscript; T-LL performed experiments and interpreted the results; JDY and H-CL conceived and supervised the project, interpreted the results and wrote the manuscript; JM, DMO and C-CL interpreted the results and wrote the manuscript; Y-FK provided the HSM extract and polysaccharides fractions; all authors discussed the results and approved the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors’ work is supported by the Primordia Institute of New Sciences and Medicine; the Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections (Chang Gung University); the Featured Areas Research Center Program, which is part of the Higher Education Sprout Project of the Ministry of Education of Taiwan; by grants MOST105-2320-B-182-032-MY3, MOST105-2320-B-030-004, MOST103-2321-B-182-014-MY3 and MOST107-3017-F-182-001 from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan; and by grants BMRPA04, CMRPD1E0073, CMRPD1F0123, CORPD1F0011-3, QZRPD142 and QZRPD146 from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

  • Competing interests Y-FK is President of Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation. JDY is Chairman of the Board of Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation. The authors own patents related to the preparation and use of medicinal fungi and probiotics.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval This study was approved by Chang Gung University’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Document No. CGU11-117). Experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Footnotes

  • T-RW, C-SL and C-JC contributed equally.

  • Contributors T-RW, C-SL and C-JC conceived the project, contributed to experimental design, performed experiments, interpreted the results, prepared the figures and wrote the manuscript; T-LL performed experiments and interpreted the results; JDY and H-CL conceived and supervised the project, interpreted the results and wrote the manuscript; JM, DMO and C-CL interpreted the results and wrote the manuscript; Y-FK provided the HSM extract and polysaccharides fractions; all authors discussed the results and approved the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors’ work is supported by the Primordia Institute of New Sciences and Medicine; the Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections (Chang Gung University); the Featured Areas Research Center Program, which is part of the Higher Education Sprout Project of the Ministry of Education of Taiwan; by grants MOST105-2320-B-182-032-MY3, MOST105-2320-B-030-004, MOST103-2321-B-182-014-MY3 and MOST107-3017-F-182-001 from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan; and by grants BMRPA04, CMRPD1E0073, CMRPD1F0123, CORPD1F0011-3, QZRPD142 and QZRPD146 from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

  • Competing interests Y-FK is President of Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation. JDY is Chairman of the Board of Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation. The authors own patents related to the preparation and use of medicinal fungi and probiotics.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval This study was approved by Chang Gung University’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Document No. CGU11-117). Experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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