Objective Microscopic colitis (MC) encompasses the two histopathological distinct entities of collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). In this Danish population-based cohort study, we examined the risk of MC following stool culture with Campylobacter concisus, C. jejuni, non-typhoidal Salmonella or a culture-negative stool test.
Design We identified patients with a first-time positive stool culture with C. concisus, C. jejuni, non-typhoidal Salmonella or negative stool test, from 2009 through 2013 in North Denmark Region, Denmark, and matched each with 10 population comparisons. All subjects were followed up until 1 March 2018 using Systematised Nomenclature of Medicine codes from The Danish Pathology Register for incident diagnoses of CC and LC. We computed risk and adjusted HRs with 95% CIs for MC among patients and comparisons.
Results We identified 962 patients with C. concisus, 1725 with C. jejuni, 446 with Salmonella and 11 825 patients with culture-negative stools. The MC risk and HR versus comparisons were high for patients with C. concisus (risk 6.2%, HR 32.4 (95% CI 18.9 to 55.6)), less for C. jejuni (risk 0.6%, HR 3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 7.7)), low for Salmonella (risk 0.4%, HR 2.2 (95% CI 0.5 to 10.8)) and for patients with negative stool testing (risk 3.3%, HR 19.6 (95% CI 16.4 to 23.4)). After exclusion of the first year of follow-up, the HRs were 9.3 (95% CI 4.1 to 20.1), 2.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.4), 1.3 (95% CI 0.2 to 11.1) and 5.6 (95% CI 4.6 to 7.2), respectively.
Conclusion A high risk of MC was observed following C. concisus in stools. Further studies are needed to elucidate any underlying biological mechanisms.
- Campylobacter concisus
- Campylobacter jejuni
- microscopic colitis
- collagenous colitis
- lymphocytic colitis
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Contributors HLN, MD-P and HN initiated the study. MD-P and HLN applied for permissions from the Danish Data Protection Agency and the Danish Patient Safety Authority. HLN performed the data collection, and MD-P performed the statistical analysis. HLN drafted the manuscript, which was critically revised by all authors. All authors contributed to the final manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (reference number 2008-58-0028) and by the Danish Patient Safety Authority (reference number 3-3013-2314/1). According to Danish law, individual consent is not required for registry-based studies and approval by the ethics committee is not applicable.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary material.