Objective The interleukin (IL)23 pathway contributes to IBD pathogenesis and is being actively studied as a therapeutic target in patients with IBD. Unexpected outcomes in these therapeutic trials have highlighted the importance of understanding the cell types and mechanisms through which IL23 regulates immune outcomes. How IL23 regulates macrophage outcomes and the consequences of the IL23R R381Q IBD-protective variant on macrophages are not well defined; macrophages are key players in IBD pathogenesis and inflammation.
Design We analysed protein and RNA expression, signalling and localisation in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) through western blot, ELISA, real-time PCR, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation and microscopy.
Results IL23R was critical for optimal levels of pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-induced signalling and cytokines in human MDMs. In contrast to the coreceptor IL12Rβ1, IL23 induced dynamic IL23R cell surface regulation and this required clathrin and dynamin-mediated endocytosis and endocytic recycling-dependent pathways; these pathways were essential for IL23R-mediated outcomes. The IBD-protective IL23R R381Q variant showed distinct outcomes. Relative to IL23R R381, HeLa cells expressing IL23R Q381 showed decreased IL23R recycling and reduced assembly of IL23R Q381 with Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway members. In MDMs from IL23R Q381 carriers, IL23R accumulated in late endosomes and lysosomes on IL23 treatment and cells demonstrated decreased IL23R- and PRR-induced signalling and cytokines relative to IL23R R381 MDMs.
Conclusion Macrophage-mediated inflammatory pathways are key contributors to IBD pathogenesis, and we identify an autocrine/paracrine IL23 requirement in PRR-initiated human macrophage outcomes and in human intestinal myeloid cells, establish that IL23R undergoes ligand-induced recycling, define mechanisms regulating IL23R-induced signalling and determine how the IBD-protective IL23R R381Q variant modulates these processes.
- inflammatory bowel disease
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