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YC and XZ contributed equally.
Contributors XiZ, YC and XuZ had full access to all the data in the study and took responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: XiZ, YC, XuZ. Acquisition of data: KW, MS, ATC, ELG, YC. Analysis and interpretation of data: all coauthors. Drafting of the manuscript: XiZ, YC, XuZ. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: all authors. Statistical analysis: XiZ, YC. Obtained funding: SO, ATC, ELG, XuZ. Administrative, technical or material support: YC, XuZ. Study supervision: YC, XuZ.
Funding Grant support: The Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses’ Health Study were supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants UM1CA186107, P50CA127003, P01CA87969 and UM1CA167552. This work was additional funded by NIH grants (R03 CA197879 and R21 CA222940 to KW, R21 CA230873 to KW and SO, R01 CA151993 and R35 CA197735 to SO; K24 DK098311 to ATC; K07 CA218377 to YC; K07 CA188126 to XuZ). XiZ is supported by International Programme for PhD Candidates, Sun Yat-Sen University. KW is supported by an Investigator Initiated Grants from the American Institute for Cancer Research. SO is supported by Nodal Award from the Dana-Farber Harvard Cancer Center and by grants from the Project P Fund for Colorectal Cancer Research, the Friends of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Bennett Family Fund, the Entertainment Industry Foundation through National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance and American Association for Cancer Research (Stand Up to Cancer Colorectal Cancer Dream Team Translational Research Grant). ATC is a Stuart and Suzanne Steele MGH Research Scholar. XuZ is also supported by the American Cancer Society Research Scholar Grant (RSG NEC-130476) and Boston Nutrition Obesity Research Center Pilot and Feasibility Award.
Competing interests Charles S. Fuchs reports consulting role for Agios, Bain Capital, Bayer, Celgene, Dicerna, Five Prime Therapeutics, Gilead Sciences, Eli Lilly, Entrinsic Health, Genentech, KEW, Merck, Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Sanofi, Taiho, and Unum Therapeutics. He also serves as a Director for CytomX Therapeutics and owns unexercised stock options for CytomX and Entrinsic Health.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.