Timely detection of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) and even more so its precursor Barrett’s oesophagus (BO) could contribute to decrease OAC incidence and mortality. An accurate, minimally-invasive screening method for BO for widespread use is currently not available. In a proof-of-principle study in 402 patients, we developed and cross-validated a BO prediction model using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis with an electronic nose device. This electronic nose was able to distinguish between patients with and without BO with good diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 91% specificity 74%) and seemed to be independent of proton pump inhibitor use, the presence of hiatal hernia, and reflux. This technique may enable an efficient, well-tolerated, and sensitive and specific screening method to select high-risk individuals to undergo upper endoscopy.
- barrett's oesophagus
- oesophageal cancer
- breath tests
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Contributors YP: study concept and design, patient inclusion, data acquisition, quality control of data and algorithms, data analysis and interpretation, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, editing, and review; RWMS: contributed to study design, patient inclusion, data acquisition, critical revision of the manuscript. AT: contributed to study design, patient inclusion, data acquisition, critical revision of the manuscript. SKB: contributed to study design, patient inclusion, data acquisition, critical revision of the manuscript. BdJ: contributed to study design, patient inclusion, data acquisition, critical revision of the manuscript. PDS: study concept and design, data interpretation, manuscript editing, and review, study supervision.
Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. The four Aeonose devices were supplied by the eNose Company (Zutphen, the Netherlands) at no costs.
Competing interests The Aeonose™ devices are provided by the eNose Company (Zutphen, the Netherlands) for use in research. No additional funding for this study was received and all research was investigator initiated.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study protocol was approved by the research ethics committee of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, the Netherlands, and thereafter by all local ethics committees of the participating centres. This study was performed in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (Identifier NL6750 (NTR6928)).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.