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Three-dimensional bioprinted hepatorganoids in liver failure
  1. Savneet Kaur1,
  2. Dinesh Mani Tripathi1,
  3. Sourabh Ghosh2
  1. 1 Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
  2. 2 Department of Textile and Fibre Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Savneet Kaur, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi 110070, India; savykaur{at}

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We read with interest the recent study by Yang et al, who reported the construction of three-dimensional bioprinted hepatorganoids (3DP-HOs) using HepaRG cells and bioinks.1 We congratulate the authors for this pioneering study that demonstrates the fabrication and in vivo application of functional 3DP-HOs in mice models of liver failure. The study would pave the way for the use of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted primary hepatocytes and/or hepatic progenitor cells as possible regenerative therapies in liver diseases. However, there are some caveats in the study, which need to be highlighted.

First, the study showed that after 7 days of differentiation in vitro, HepaRG cells in 3DP-HOs expressed hepatic marker genes and exhibited albumin secretion (figure 2). However, it is to be noted that most …

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  • Contributors SK initiated and wrote the manuscript. DMT gave inputs for the in vivo study. SG highlighted the 3D printing gaps.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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