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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: moving towards precision use for prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer
  1. Joanna Aldoori1,2,
  2. Andrew J Cockbain2,
  3. Giles J Toogood2,
  4. Mark A Hull1
  1. 1 Gastrointestinal & Surgical Sciences, Leeds Institute of Medical Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  2. 2 Hepatobiliary Surgery, St James's University Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Mark A Hull, Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St James's, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK; M.A.Hull{at}leeds.ac.uk

Abstract

Data from experimental studies have demonstrated that marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3FAs) have anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In the last decade, large-scale randomised controlled trials of pharmacological delivery of O3FAs and prospective cohort studies of dietary O3FA intake have continued to investigate the relationship between O3FA intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and mortality. Clinical data suggest that O3FAs have differential anti-CRC activity depending on several host factors (including pretreatment blood O3FA level, ethnicity and systemic inflammatory response) and tumour characteristics (including location in the colorectum, histological phenotype (eg, conventional adenoma or serrated polyp) and molecular features (eg, microsatellite instability, cyclooxygenase expression)). Recent data also highlight the need for further investigation of the effect of O3FAs on the gut microbiota as a possible anti-CRC mechanism, when used either alone or in combination with other anti-CRC therapies. Overall, these data point towards a precision approach to using O3FAs for optimal prevention and treatment of CRC based on mechanistic understanding of host, tumour and gut microbiota factors that predict anticancer activity of O3FAs.

  • colorectal cancer
  • colorectal adenomas
  • diet

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Footnotes

  • Contributors JA reviewed the literature, analysed the data and wrote the manuscript; AJC and GJT reviewed the literature and made critical revisions to the manuscript; MH reviewed the literature, analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.